Our grid is impacted by a combination of federal, regional, state, and local agencies. This balkanized view of the grid illustrates the often-parochial interests of the utilities and the regulators that influence the future of transmission infrastructure.
The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Dept. of Energy, Dept. of Agriculture, and Dept. of Interior regulate everything from utility, transmission and generation rates to rights of way and land use management.
Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) and Independent System Operators (ISOs) advocate competition among generators, provide equal, non-discriminatory access to transmission, conduct regional planning, manage interconnections and oversee energy markets.
At the state and local levels, Public Service and Public Utility commissions regulate retail rates and siting, while environmental agencies and legislators regulate land use, siting, and environmental standards.